# Backtesting Module

Do you often find yourself creating new 'strategy()' scripts for each trading system? Are you unable to focus on generating new systems due to fatigue and time loss incurred in the process? Here's a potential solution: the 'Backtesting Module' :)

INTRODUCTION
Every trading system is based on four basic conditions: long entry, long exit, short entry and short exit (which are typically defined as boolean series in Pine Script).

If you can define the conditions generated by your trading system as a series of integers, it becomes possible to use these variables in different scripts in efficient ways. (Pine Script is a convenient language that allows you to use the integer output of one indicator as a source in another.)

The 'Backtesting Module' is a dynamic strategy script designed to adapt to your signals. It boasts two notable features:
⮞ It produces a backtest report using the entry and exit variables you define.
⮞ It not only serves for system testing but also to combine independent signals into a single system. (This functionality enables to create complex strategies and report on their success!)

The module tests Golden and Death cross signals by default, when you enter your own conditions the default signals will be neutralized. The methodology is described below.

PREPARATION
There are three simple steps to connect your own indicator to the Module.

• STEP 1
Firstly, you must define entry and exit variables in your own script. Let's elucidate it with a straightforward example. Consider a system generating long and short signals based on the intersections of two moving averages. Consequently, our conditions would be as follows:

```// Signals
long  = ta.crossover(ta.sma(close, 14), ta.sma(close, 28))
short = ta.crossunder(ta.sma(close, 14), ta.sma(close, 28))```

Now, the question is: How can we convert boolean variables into integer variables? The answer is conditional ternary block, defined as follows:

```// Entry & Exit
long_entry  = long  ? 1 : 0
long_exit   = short ? 1 : 0
short_entry = short ? 1 : 0
short_exit  = long  ? 1 : 0```

The mechanics of the Entry & Exit variables are simple. The variable takes on a value of 1 when your trading system generates the signal and if your system does not produce any signal, variable returns 0. In this example, you see how exit signals can be generated in a trading system that only contains entry signals. If you have a system with original exit signals, you can also use them directly. (Please mind the NOTES section below).

• STEP 2
To utilize the Entry & Exit variables as source in another script, they must be plotted on the chart. Therefore, the final detail to include in the script containing your trading system would be as follows:

```// Plot The Output
plot(long_entry,  "Long Entry",  display=display.data_window, editable=false)
plot(long_exit,   "Long Exit",   display=display.data_window, editable=false)
plot(short_entry, "Short Entry", display=display.data_window, editable=false)
plot(short_exit,  "Short Exit",  display=display.data_window, editable=false)```

• STEP 3
Now, we are ready to test the system! Load the Backtesting Module indicator onto the chart along with your trading system/indicator. Then set the outputs of your system (Long Entry, Long Exit, Short Entry, Short Exit) as source in the module. That's it.

FEATURES & ORIGINALITY
⮞ Primarily, this script has been created to provide you with an easy and practical method when testing your trading system.
⮞ I thought it might be nice to visualize a few useful results. The Backtesting Module provides insights into the outcomes of both long and short trades by computing the number of trades and the success percentage.
⮞ Through the 'Trade' parameter, users can specify the market direction in which the indicator is permitted to initiate positions.
⮞ Users have the flexibility to define the date range for the test.
⮞ There are optional features allowing users to plot entry prices on the chart and customize bar colors.
⮞ The report and the test date range are presented in a table on the chart screen. The entry price can be monitored in the data window.
⮞ Note that results are based on realized returns, and the open trade is not included in the displayed results. (The only exception is the 'Unrealized PNL' result in the table.)

STRATEGY SETTINGS
The default parameters are as follows:
⮞ Initial Balance : 10000 (in units of currency)
⮞ Quantity : 10% of equity
⮞ Commission : 0.04%
⮞ Slippage : 0
⮞ Dataset : All bars in the chart
For a realistic backtest result, you should size trades to only risk sustainable amounts of equity. Do not risk more than 5-10% on a trade. And ALWAYS configure your commission and slippage parameters according to pessimistic scenarios!

NOTES
⮞ This script is intended solely for development purposes. And it'll will be available for all the indicators I publish.
⮞ In this version of the module, all order types are designed as market orders. The exit size is the sum of the entry size.
⮞ As your trading conditions grow more intricate, you might need to define the outputs of your system in alternative ways. The method outlined in this description is tailored for straightforward signal structures.
⮞ Additionally, depending on the structure of your trading system, the backtest module may require further development. This encompasses stop-loss, take-profit, specific exit orders, quantity, margin and risk management calculations. I am considering releasing improvements that consider these options in future versions.
⮞ An example of how complex trading signals can be generated is the OTT Collection. If you're interested in seeing how the signals are constructed, you can use the link below.

THANKS
Special thanks to PineCoders for their valuable moderation efforts.
I hope this will be a useful example for the TradingView community...

DISCLAIMER
This is just an indicator, nothing more. It is provided for informational and educational purposes exclusively. The utilization of this script does not constitute professional or financial advice. The user solely bears the responsibility for risks associated with script usage. Do not forget to manage your risk. And trade as safely as possible. Best of luck!
Notas de prensa:
The interval bug fixed.
Notas de prensa:
The tooltip is updated.
Notas de prensa:
Merge bug fixed. Sincere thanks to martalimicus for his warning and attention...